Summary

Summary Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union provides for an EU Member State to leave the EU with or without a withdrawal agreement or ‘deal’. The EU and UK aimed to reach agreement by October 2018 on the UK’s ...

How Could No Deal Happen

Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) provides for an EU Member State to leave the EU with or without a withdrawal agreement – or ‘deal’ – within a two-year timeframe starting from the formal ...

Preparations for No Deal

2.1 UK Government preparations The return of “no deal is better than a bad deal” In her Lancaster House speech in January 2017 the Prime Minister, Theresa May, was “clear that no deal for Britain is better than a bad ...

Governance

The European Union involves complex governance processes, as set out below. In the event of no deal, the UK will be outside those processes and there will be no agreement on how future relations between the UK and ...

Economic Impact

Economic impact The economic impact of the UK leaving the EU with no deal – without a withdrawal agreement, transition period, framework for a future trade deal or ‘mini-deals’ in certain areas – is difficult to ...

Trade

Trade The UK is currently party to over a thousand international agreements with third countries as a member of the EU. These cover trade, regulatory and policy co-operation in a range of areas, including fisheries, ...

Customs

7.1 Increased customs controls The effects of ‘no deal’ are expected to be most tangible at the UK border. At the moment of leaving the EU customs union without a deal, the border between the UK and the EU would ...

Food and Farming

10.1 Overview The National Farmers’ Union (NFU) has said that a no deal outcome is the “worst possible one” for the farming industry.392 The Food and Drink Federation (FDF) has called no deal a “grisly prospect”.393 ...

Fisheries

Fisheries Following Brexit, the UK will no longer be part of the EU Commons Fisheries Policy (CFP). It will become an independent coastal state and will be fully responsible for managing fisheries in the UK’s ...

Fisheries

Fisheries Following Brexit, the UK will no longer be part of the EU Commons Fisheries Policy (CFP). It will become an independent coastal state and will be fully responsible for managing fisheries in the UK’s ...

Energy

Energy Although Member States remain ultimately responsible for the energy supply to their citizens and for deciding on the most appropriate energy mix, the UK and EU energy sectors are integrated through trade, EU ...

Transport

Transport Much of the uncertainty around a no-deal Brexit and transport relates to the impact it may have on the continuity of air travel and on road haulage and delays at UK ports. The Government believes a no-deal ...

Internal Security

Internal security The UK currently participates in approximately 40 EU measures that aim to support and enhance internal security and police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. Measures identified as being ...

External Relations

16.1 EFTA separation agreements On 20 December 2018, the Government announced it had reached agreement with the three EFTA EEA countries to address separation issues following Brexit, including protecting the rights ...

External Relations

16.1 EFTA separation agreements On 20 December 2018, the Government announced it had reached agreement with the three EFTA EEA countries to address separation issues following Brexit, including protecting the rights ...

No Deal Planning in EU 27

Austria The Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz said in 2018 he would rather extend negotiations than surrender to a hard Brexit if a deal on the Irish border was not agreed.697 According to Bloomberg (19 July 2018), ...
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