Sub-categories

EEIG & European Companies

EEIG Requirements A European regulation provides for the establishment of European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG). The purpose of an ...

Mergers and Divisions

Mergers of Public Companies The third council Directive deals with mergers of public liability companies. In order to be subject to the ...

Various Companies Matters

Shareholders’ Voting Rights I A Company law directive establishes minimum requirements to facilitate the exercise of shareholder ...

Accounts & Audit

Requirements of Accounts The fourth company Directive deals with the annual accounts of limited companies. The annual accounts are to ...

Takeovers

General An EU Directive on takeover bids sets minimum guidelines for the conduct of takeover bids involving the securities of companies ...

E-Privacy

Unsolicited Communications to (Persons) I A person shall not use or cause to be used any publicly available electronic communications ...

E-Commerce

Overview E-Commerce is business conducted over the internet.  For the most part, the general legal rules apply to E-Commerce.  The law ...

EU Competition Law

EU Competition Law Competition policy has been a central element of the European Union Treaties since the outset. The completion of the ...

Procurement Processes

Types of Process There is a number of types of procurement procedures permitted under the 2014 directives.  The most common procedure ...

Vertical Restraints

General Vertical restraints are agreements made between persons operating at different levels in the market, such as manufacturers and ...

Market Dominance

Dominance Dominance must be considered with reference to the relevant market, once ascertained and defined.  Dominance has been defined ...

Abusive Market Behaviour

Definition of Abuse Article 102 of the EU Treaty sets out indicative examples of abuse of a dominant position.  They include; directly ...

Climate Change

Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol to which the EU and its member states are parties, requires that states tackle emissions of six ...

Natural Environment

Nature Conservation There is a significant body of European Union driven legislation dealing with nature conservation.  This is part of ...

The Atmosphere

National Limits on Atmospheric Pollutants There are national limits in respect of certain atmospheric pollutants.  They apply to ...

Water

Water Framework Directive The water framework directive is a framework for the protection of: Groundwater Coastal waters Inland surface ...

Waste

Overview of Waste There are common EU rules on treatment and dealing with waste.  The aims  are to protect the environment and health ...
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